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Female Leaders in Public Administrative Professional Fields

“Female Leaders in Public Administrative Professional Fields”


Women are modern leaders in many fields of public administration. Female leaders create new professional achievements that help them become inspirational women. Across diverse disciplines, women are combating systemic problems, health-related issues, family troubles, and career development struggles. Female leaders are tested in different areas to determine politeness, career sustainability, health knowledge, and political status. Women are the labor force and backbone of our global economy. Women are providers and nurturers that develop a sense of professionalism that can improve any public administration sector. This global phenomenon of women's leadership research can help determine the current global status of women in different areas and what women have to offer in leadership roles.

Quantitative Articles

Almusallam, I., & Ismail, M. (2022). Politic offering behavior among Saudi females: Is there

any place for quantitative analysis in discursive politeness? Journal of Pragmatics, 200,



Saudi females play an essential role in their political behavior and the appropriate manner in their cultural society. This quantitative analysis allows researchers to examine Saudi females' dominant norms and political patterns (Almusallam & Ismail, 2022). The researchers evaluate “politeness” in their cultural society and different controversial norms regarding the political freedom Saudi females seek to represent (Almusallam & Ismail, 2022). The Arab world shows hospitality, politeness, and conservative values as key norms of Saudi females. The framework study design collects data from recruited participants that are friends who have open conversations about their heterogeneity norms within cultures and the negotiation of small groups in the larger society (Almusallam & Ismail, 2022).


The research was framed to collect important Saudi female insider information and how these women viewed their larger society. The researchers added to the existing literature on Saudi female cultural politeness and normative values by collecting data from their everyday cultural environments like dinner parties and informal talking with friends. The interviews were a valuable tool that used the native language with the subjects and recorded conversations about their roles in the household, what was considered impolite, very polite, appropriate, and neither appropriate nor inappropriate behaviors for Saudi females (Almusallam & Ismail, 2022). The researchers used impressive methods of a coding scheme that utilized natural spoken discourse and negotiated spoken discourse. Off exchanges were either verbal or non-verbal types of offers to guests, and the complexity of offer exchanges and stimulus type of initiative offers (Almusallam & Ismail, 2022). For example, Saudi females would offer information about exercises, tea or cookies, and extra servings to guests in an informal non-verbal manner or a formal verbal manner as a coded scheme for politeness. These cultural differences in Saudi females' norms within their society show their limits of control.


The research study shows the significant application of the quantitative approach, which identifies if Saudi females are polite within their social groups. This information changed the stereotypes about offers in Saudi Arabia. The research found that reoffering was only sometimes done in previously studied contexts. Previous claims that Arabs stereotypically often engage in ritual reoffering and refusing regardless of the context were challenged in this study (Almusallam & Ismail, 2022). Possibly due to Western cultural influences, a younger generation of Saudi women is avoiding reoffering and are more concerned about individualism (Almusallam & Ismail, 2022). Younger Saudi women seek independence from previous ritual politeness and do not want to impose on others.

Sarker, R., Islam, S., Moonajilin, S. Rahman, M.,

Gesesew, H., & Ward, P. (2022). Effectiveness of educational intervention on breast

cancer knowledge and breast self-examination among female university students in

Bangladesh: a pre-post quasi-experimental study. BMC Cancer, 22(1), 1–7.


Breast cancer is a global health issue and a leading cause of death among women. Knowing the early effects of breast cancer can help women protect themselves against vulnerability. The quasi-experimental (pre-post) study design uses breast cancer and breast self-examination (BSE) information among 400 female students at Jahangirnagar University in Bangladesh (Sarker et al., 2022). The 400 female university students aged 18 to 26 were tested on their breast cancer awareness and breast cancer self-assessment procedures (Sarker et al., 2022). The research findings confirmed that this group of 400 female university students was inadequate in their breast cancer awareness and self-assessment knowledge. The researchers recommend a nationwide intervention program that increases female awareness in rural and urban populations.


The good qualities of this research give other scholarly practitioners information on breast cancer awareness and how it affects females' long-term development in Bangladesh. The negative quality is that the study only includes younger women aged 18 to 26, which has a significant bias on the awareness aspect of the study (Sarker et al., 2022). Many younger women in Bangladesh were not taught about the effects of breast cancer and how to perform a self-assessment. The assess participant knowledge of breast cancer, there were 43 questions (i.e., 8 for symptoms, 10 for risk factors, 6 for treatment, 8 for prevention, 5 for screening, and 5 for the process of BSE) during the survey (Sarker et al., 2022). The survey aligned with the research question on breast cancer awareness and created generalizations of the female university student’s understanding of this breast cancer disease.


The application of the survey questioning aligned with the research. There was clear justification for the research interest in this group of 400 female university students. The post-test results suggest that women’s knowledge was significantly increased after providing an educational intervention. The study concludes that the educational program on breast cancer and BSE has been effective in improving the knowledge and BSE practice levels of women (Sarker et al., 2022). In future study recommendations, there should be a larger and more diversified population to assess the effectiveness in different population groups of women. Future researchers should monitor the changes in breast cancer awareness and practice breast cancer screening in rural and urban areas (Sarker et al., 2022). This type of research applies to women in public administration roles to alleviate women’s issues during their careers.

Qualitative Articles

Adams, H. D., & Greer, W. N. (2021). Successful ascent of female leaders in the pharmaceutical

industry: a qualitative, transcendental, and phenomenological study. Equality, Diversity,

and Inclusion: An International Journal, 40(7), 819–837.


The research study the rise of 12 female executives in one of the STEM disciplines of the pharmaceutical industry. The researchers discover the setbacks, challenges, and successes that they experienced during their professional achievement in the executive position. This qualitative, transcendental, and phenomenological approach found that specific barriers like gendered structures, self, peers, direct managers, family, and society played a role in their challenge to the executive position (Adams & Greer, 2021). Certain success factors played a role in balancing the female leaders' challenges, including sponsors, mentors, leadership development, flexibility, self-branding, and networks that created resiliency (Adams & Greer, 2021). The upper echelons of leadership in the pharmaceutical environment as white males confirm that gender structures continue to exist (Adams & Greer, 2021). The intersectionality of race was not explored in this research. Yet, gender classification on types of positions created a 360-degree gender sphere preventing women from rising into the executive position (Adams & Greer, 2021). Gendered-based policies and perceptions of female attributes and values were challenges discovered in this research.


Limitations to this research were found through questions concerning the phenomenon of senior executive women in leadership roles at pharmaceutical organizations. Qualitative phenomenology research limitations can cause bias in how certain women react and respond to the interviewed questionnaire (Adams & Greer, 2021). Recruiting participants through purposeful sampling techniques can limit the generalizability of research on the overall population of women executives in the pharmaceutical industry (Adams & Greer, 2021). These women were selected based on their experience, regions, and demographical location, limiting the research's generalization for other scholarly studies. Under-representation of ethnic groups due to the sampling approach is another barrier to the research. Only one ethically diverse woman was recorded in this research study which does not give researchers information on this segment of the STEM environment (Adams & Greer, 2021).


STEM female leaders are an essential group to study and include research about female leaders and the success of women within their industry. The research findings are significant to show that females face setbacks and barriers that are policy-based and culturally engrained within specific professional settings (Adams & Greer, 2021). The expectation for female leaders within the STEM pharmaceutical industry correlates with the other research papers on females and their challenges to gaining social recognition for their work. Specific barriers like gendered structures, male dominance, self-perspectives, peer reviews, management support, and family dynamics are factors in a female leader's professional success ratings (Adams & Greer, 2021). This research source guides my overall research designs on women's studies, and the application of this source is significant to the discovery of female leadership professional pathways.

Muktar, S.A., Desta, B.F., Damte, H.D. et al. (2022) Exploring the opportunities and challenges

of female health leaders in three regional states of Ethiopia: a phenomenological study.


Female health leaders in Ethiopia create a qualitative phenomenological study on the barriers and support systems they endure while gaining leadership positions. Gender equity of fairness in all aspects of life for females and males is determined by social, political, economic, and cultural relations (Muktar et al., 2022). Female leaders are in low supply, and this research study discovers new experiences and opportunities females face as health leaders. This purposive sampling technique was used to interview six women leaders through translations from their regional dialects to English. The result found that empathy and wise use of resources helped women gain leadership positions (Muktar et al., 2022). Women who had the support of their close family members and peers were more likely to compete for leadership positions (Muktar et al., 2022). Females who had organizational support through affirmation action, training, development, and recognition also gained leadership positions (Muktar et al., 2022).


The good qualities of the research were that the six women were in wide geographical areas that covered the cultural differences and languages that impacted their rise to leadership positions. The bad quality was that purposive bias could cause a lack of generalization for females outside this regional location. The conceptual framework created four common themes from the interviews: individual behavior, social support, organizational support, and gender stereotypes (cultural norms/ societal factors) that caused women to gain positions or turn them down (Muktar et al., 2022). Women whose supervisors micromanaged were less likely to gain leadership positions (Muktar et al., 2022). In alignment with previous studies, personal characteristics improved team engagement and self-confidence, and building trust among staff is exhibited among women transformational leaders (Muktar et al., 2022). Adding to previous literature, leadership skills, and competencies improved through position orientation and experience-sharing activities for women that earned leadership positions (Muktar et al., 2022).


In modern-day family dynamics, women in Ethiopia and other developing countries have the burden of household chores. However, these sources discuss the positive impact of spouses, grandparents, and peers on women who apply for leadership positions. Empowering women and reducing inequalities will benefit family dynamics, communities, and the country of Ethiopia (Muktar et al., 2022). In application to universal scholarly practice, this source is a good component for developing countries and the female barriers and successes they face. However, in the western world, the types of discussions and experiences of cultural women can be seen differently as applied to other female leadership sources. The recommendations for future policymakers, program managers, development partners, and health workers suggest opening opportunities for female leaders in the healthcare sector (Muktar et al., 2022). Enhancing the leadership capacity of women and improving social and organizational support is recommended (Muktar et al., 2022). Women must also address their poor self-imaging in male-dominated societal norms at the community level to increase their confidence in attaining leadership positions (Muktar et al., 2022).

Mixed Methods

Bast, J., Oschatz, C., & Renner, A.-M. (2022). Successfully Overcoming the “Double Bind”? A

Mixed-Method Analysis of the Self-Presentation of Female Right-wing Populists on

Instagram and the Impact on Voter Attitudes.


Gender stereotypes on a competence and warmth dimension are examined between male and female political populists on Instagram in Europe. Female populists represent themselves as colder but more competent than their male colleagues regarding social media. Evaluations of social roles and competent in their non-verbal behavior and imaging posts show voters' likeability for these political representatives (Bast et al., 2022). The mixed methods between public interviews and collected social media post-coded show the qualitative and quantitative methods used in this research design. Determining warmth dimension through traits like being caring and honest and insensitivity and dishonesty range high warmth and low warmth through the public viewpoint (Bast et al., 2022). The contrasting competence dimension consists of performance-oriented traits such as strong leadership and assertiveness and weak leadership or lack of ambition (Bast et al., 2022). The findings showed both men’s and female's communication strategies were similarly promoted based on their Instagram posts (Bast et al., 2022). Although previous studies showed stereotypical behavior of European political figures, their approach to reaching voters remains similar.


Previous empirical studies analyze gender stereotypes in the communication of female and male politicians through the representation of social roles, non-verbal behavior, and issue communication (Bast et al., 2022). One strength of this mixed methods research design was investigating effects on voters based on the real-life communication of politicians (Bast et al., 2022). Since this research study used a small sample of leading European right-wing populists, the general application of right wing-populist is limited. In future research studies, researchers must expand beyond the European context as politicians from countries with other political systems and party landscapes can communicate on Instagram differently than Europeans (Bast et al., 2022). Future studies must test the effects of gendered communication in a more diverse sample, including more participants from the entire political spectrum. Certain voter characteristics, like attitudes toward gender equality, influence the impact of visual communications; therefore, including this in the public survey response section can enlighten this research phenomenon (Bast et al., 2022).


In the changing political system of the world, the source shines a light on the effects of social media content on voter attitudes. The source discusses public administration issues through political officials' Instagram posts and voter responses. This source applies to my research on gender studies and women's leadership. In politics, there are right and left lending politicals that sway to a certain ideal for public issues. The source discusses gender biases, masculinity, and feminity issues that voters respond to emotional warmth or intelligent competence ratio (Bast et al., 2022). Gender equity in politics through communication platforms like Instagram is important to follow for public opinion and upcoming elections.

Huan Luo, Fa Li, George Kwame Agbanyo, Mark Awe Tachega, & Tachia Chin. (2022).

Family-supportive supervisor behaviors and career sustainability of e-commerce female

workers: A mixed-method approach.


Women play a vital role in e-commerce in China. This study contributes to the family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB) and career sustainability of e-commerce in China (Luo et al., 2022). This mixed method approach was used to interview participants and collect questionnaire data to determine the hypotheses' reliability and validity. Female employees are indispensable workforce in the global labor market, and they often play supportive roles and take on more family responsibilities while performing highly at work (Luo et al., 2022). FSSB positively affects female employee career sustainability, self-efficacy, and career sustainability (Luo et al., 2022). FSSB and career sustainability are mediated by self-efficacy to help women provide better care for their families and keep their career positions (Luo et al., 2022).


The excellent quality of this research is that it talks about females in prosperous e-commerce career areas and what they need to improve their position performance. The negative quality of this research study is that it only gains insight into the e-commerce sector for women in China. To critique this research study, we would increase the sample size to a high proportion of unmarried women, which can give a different viewpoint. Instead of using Chinese e-commerce enterprises (Luo et al., 2022), a future study can use broader cross-cultural and cross-generational perspectives (Luo et al., 2022). The study's conceptual framework was solid and aligned with the research question. The methodology and research design were created to give a specific context of women in the e-commerce sector that needs support from their supervisors for career stability.


The research interest aligns with my overall topic on women in their career fields. The sources method provides additional information on women’s place in the family dynamic for e-commerce professionals. Women need career support from supervisors with family-related issues that can arise, which gives them the confidence to excel in their position. The application of this source helps understand the healthy psychological and physiological assistance for the career sustainability of women (Luo et al., 2022). Supervisors help females maintain positive attitudes toward their job and family life. To improve female self-efficiency, managers can give female staff more opportunities to challenge themselves through success and failures to upgrade their job skills (Luo et al., 2022). This research study applies to women and their goals to gain fulfillment throughout family and work life.


Female leaders face many challenges in today’s global society. Healthcare issues, professional positions, and promoting gender equality are at the forefront of the positive social change of public administration. Female executive leaders are promoted because of organizational support and family support. Balancing the work requirements for female leaders helps them develop long-term goals and achieve a higher quality of life. Female leaders develop a voice to speak out about the cultural biases and expectations in Middle Eastern countries that traditionally require women to entertain guests. European female politicians display social media posts to gain voter confidence through personal family posts and public issues compared to their male colleagues. Women face health-related issues like breast cancer that they must become aware of for their long-term survival, specifically college students who are the future leaders of our industries. Overall, women face many challenges on their way to becoming leaders, yet, they thrive on other women's success and the support from family, peers, and their organizations.

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