According to the city of darkness and city of lights case study, many people that move to urban cities are environmental migrants that have caused deforestation and are subject to other environmental issues that are unsuitable to sustain life. Even though people in urban communities are densely packed and looking for work to sustain a reasonable living, the opportunity for improvement comes from a community that works together. (Horwood & Phillips, 2007)
Dramatically shifting the poverty from the rural to the urban context. The battle to mitigate poverty will be in cities rather than the countryside. Poor urban communities are where individuals are seeking asylum by escaping environmental wars and civil conflict. The double edge sword of cities is that they are concentrated in equity, poor planning and governance. While cities answer the poverty issues because they are the potential engine to economic prosperity. (Horwood & Phillips, 2007) The developing society can produce good health care, universal education, efficient housing, water, sanitation and encouraging social development. These qualities will provide an efficient society that can bolster cities economic development to create a higher standard of living which eliminates. The urban poor communities can create jobs that will produce a better infrastructure like clean water, electricity, and public housing which will mitigate the influx of slum areas. The problem of cities concentrating poverty is that they lack governance. The unequal distribution of natural resources and policies to govern people result in lack of economic achievement. (Horwood & Phillips, 2007)
The inflation of city dwellers to rural areas is massive in countries like India and Nigeria. The improvement opportunities include reduction of risk, civil danger and disease for urban poor. (Corburn & Riley, 2016) Governments need to be aware of the different scientists, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), private sector and communities bases that can help produce effective problem solving techniques for urban poor communities. Negotiations between organizers will alleviate the social tensions between slum dwellers and city occupants that contribute to society. The real political communication should be activism that allows many people to achieve lower rates of disease and health issues caused by slum dwellers in urban cities. (Corburn & Riley, 2016)
In Mumbai, India there is one toilet for every 400 people. (Films media group, 2007) Public sanitation is not available for many people therefore squatters are unable to have proper health care needs. The Indian government made a deal with entrepreneurs agreeing to allow land for free only if they provide housing for the slum dwellers they displace. (Films media group, 2007) Constructing apartment buildings to enhance the development of the city which will help slum dwellers have better housing to improve their lives. Jobs in Mumbai, India consist of recycling trash and searching for metal, cooper, and gold pieces that can be bought for food, water and other tools.
In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil many store owners will not pay taxes for their building. The store owners only pay their rent and items to sell because no one legally owns the land. The community leaders will make the store owner pay for “rent” which are usually from the Narco gangs. (Films media group, 2007) Many people will work entry level positions like controlling stores and moving drugs for the Narco gangs because they control the small business within the slum areas.
The slum communities have the ability to improve their standard of life by assisting the poor and giving them stable jobs regulated by the legitimate government. The poor urban communities need to invest in families that live on less than one US dollar a day by providing better small jobs that can help alleviate equity of poor slum areas. Many of the education comes from previous students that were taught within the same area. These new teachers have to find the resources to teach students about the laws and staying away from drugs and gang violence. The more investment the Indian government gives to education earlier to young students the less likely they are to join gangs that control slum businesses. (Films media group, 2007)
Corburn, J., & Riley, L.W. (2016). Slum health: from the cell to the street. University of California Press. http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.proxy.lib.fsu.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=1&sid=574f19fc-3d93-4ab1-80e0-12d4a2ab13b8%40pdc-v-sessmgr02&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=fsu.034247105&db=cat05720a
Films media group (Director). (2007). Slum cities [Film]. FSU Library Online database. http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.proxy.lib.fsu.edu/eds/detail/detail?vid=1&sid=40f07ff0-3474-46f3-bd99-7a9855bea3e7%40pdc-v-sessmgr03&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=fsu.032069989&db=cat05720a
Horwood, C., & Phillips, T. (2007). Chapter 1 :Tomorrow's crises today: City of darkness city of lights. UN Habitat.